Now that we’ve all experienced at least one day of sun so far, I think it’s fair to start planning some relaxing days in the garden just soaking in the warmth, vitamin D and drinking a nice cold beverage. Such a situation calls for cider. The cold, crisp, sweet and fizzy drink is the perfect refreshment. It really is unparalleled in its ability to quench and relax on those warm days. Sure there’s beer but I don’t like beer. There’s wine, but you need a lot of liquid to replenish and feel satisfied. Maybe a cocktail if you can be bothered with all the faff, or a long spirit based drink for a simple solution. But cider, oh cider. It has a complexity of flavour that makes you feel as though you’re drinking something special. You can just sit with a nice pint and feel like you’ve achieved in your life. In hindsight, this post should really have been sponsored by a cider brand… but ah well, I’m new at this.
Away from my self-indulgent delusions of being an eloquent advertiser, let’s get down to some definitions to get us started. Cider is basically fermented apple juice maybe some sugar; usually, there has to be a specific percentage of apple juice to call it cider. Fermentation involves yeast and sugar which provides alcohol (ethanol specifically) and carbon dioxide.
From the beginning then, you get some apples. Good start. It’s not usually your bog-standard apples though, it’ll have to be ones that would normally not be that pleasant to eat. Have you ever tried a crab apple? Different properties make apples more suitable for fermenting – if they are particularly acidic, sugary and high in compounds called tannins (bitter and astringent tasting compounds). Once you have your perfect apples and maybe some extra ones to add sweetness at the end, you need to get them pulped and pressed to get out the juice. If you filter it, it’ll be a clearer cider, or leave it for a cloudy one, depends on what your preference is. Next to ferment it. It would happen by itself by natural yeasts just in the air, but that not very predictable – who knows what kind of cider you’d get from that. Predictable fermentation would use a yeast like Saccharomyces bayanus which is the most common for wines and ciders, you can buy it pretty cheap, just like bread-making yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bread, by the way). If you want a dry cider, leave the fermenting going until all the sugars have been used up, otherwise take out the yeast a bit early for a sweeter taste. This is done at pretty low temperatures, colder than room temperature, which is unusual since yeasts like things a bit cozier at maybe 30 degrees. But this low temperature makes things happen a bit slower which seems to benefit cider getting the best out of your apples. You’ll need to leave it a while to mature, all the flavours develop and you can add any extras like fresh apple juice if you want to mix things up a little. Bear in mind adding more sugar to make it sweeter would probably start the fermenting again so you could add artificial sweetener. I’d just keep it natural and see what happens. With all your carbon dioxide being produced it should have some fizz once you bottle your cider, then you can get it chilled and enjoy! Phew. It’s not that complex a process but a lot of tweaks to make to get the taste you’re looking for. See the infographic below for a nice summary of the process and all of the molecules involved in making a tasty fruity pint.
The UK is arguably the best place to get a good pint of cider. There’s a lot of big brands and the recent resurgence in popularity means there’s even more choice from loads of smaller brewers. We’re pretty lucky. Everyone’s got their preference, I’m not too keen on a dry cider but it’s got to have plenty flavour. Magners is probably what I’d aim for, the right balance I think. And as I’m sure all the purists will tell you: if it’s not apples, it’s not cider. If it’s pear it’s perry and if it’s any other fruit, alcoholic fruit wine?
Unfortunately, if you’re going to drink alcohol and be diabetic, cider probably shouldn’t be your first choice. With all the sugar it’s not to treat you nicely. Up to five teaspoons of sugar are in a pint of cider and not much other nutritional value just calories. There are some antioxidants in cider, about the same as in red wine; I think antioxidants are overrated but they do have value and a genuine function in the body clearing up toxins. With all that sugar though there’s not really much benefit from it: it’s bad for drinking if you are diabetic and drink too much and it could make you diabetic. If you’re drinking responsibly though it’s not too bad. If you are gluten intolerant at least cider is a tasty drink.
Below you’ll see an informative wee graphic describing the effects of alcohol on the organs and how alcohol is processed. It’s well known how alcohol can affect the liver and this is because it’s the main site of alcohol metabolism. There are a few enzymes that deal with alcohol and it gets metabolized into something toxic in the first place, but then quickly into something that can be broken up to get rid off. Of course, these enzymes can only work so fast and the alcohol in the bloodstream starts to inhibit brain function, starting from the back. That’s why you get disorientated and stumble as the alcohol gets into the medulla, cerebellum then the big bit, the cerebrum as the alcohol starts affecting the senses, slowing down processing of information we get from the eyes, ears, and nose. Movement slows and responses slow as alcohol hits the motor cortex and then memories in areas like the hypothalamus until you eventually black out as basic processes shut down. The area of the cerebrum controlling behavioral inhibition is affected making most people more social… although some are just annoying. Alcohol affects a lot of processes in the brain, the chemistry of the brain can change dramatically in the presence of alcohol. When you’re taking benzodiazepines they work by increasing the effect of the inhibitory system of the brain – a chemical called GABA. It promotes sedation and relaxation. So when combined with alcohol it can relax you to a dangerous level when heart rate decreases a bit too low to do its job and pump blood enough. I think we all know how important pumping blood is…
So when you’re relaxing in the sun this summer, just think what that pint of cider is doing to your brain and how it was made. By this point, you’ll probably have lost your inhibition and will explain it all to your friend!
Disclaimer: please always drink sensibly – get some good info at Drinkaware